National Dialogues provide an inclusive, broad, and participatory official negotiation format, which can resolve political crises and lead countries into political transitions. They are convened to address issues of national concern, typically longstanding causes of conflict that have been brought to the fore by political protest or armed insurrection. National Dialogues therefore have mandates that include political reforms, constitution-making, and peacebuilding. There have been numerous National Dialogues over the last 25 years, in varying political contexts and environments, ranging from Benin to Yemen. However, the international mediation, peacebuilding and constitution-making communities are still struggling to fully comprehend the functioning of National Dialogues, but most of all the conditions under which National Dialogues can contribute to successful political transitions.