Map of Inclusive Peace Processes

Process Type
Actors Included
Inclusion Modalities
Outcome

Map Locations List

33.93911
67.709953
  • Bonn Negotiations
  • Emergency Loya Jirga
  • Constitutional Loya Jirga

@ Keystone

Afghanistan went through a series of peace and transition processes after the US-led alliance of Western powers defeated the Taliban.
4.038333,21
21.758664
  • Inter-Congolese Dialogue

 © UN Photo/A Burridge

 People in Bunia respond to the arrival of peacekeepers.

The second war in DRC started in August 1998. Millions of people died in a conflict involving numerous armed groups, as well as the DRC Government and regional Governments.
9.30769
2.315834
  • Benin National Conference

© Thierry Vilmus

Years of financial crisis in Benin led to mass protests and external pressure on the Government, which announced a National Conference to discuss political and economic reform.
-3.373056
29.918886
  • Arusha Peace Process and Implementation

© UN Photo/Evan Schneider

 UN assists elections in Burundi.

Burundi has witnessed decades of strife and conflict, and in 1993 the country descended into war between Hutu- and Tutsi-dominated groups.
4.570868
-74.297333
  • Peace Negotiations

© Camilo Rueda López

"No more abductions, no more terrorism, no more deaths."

Decades of armed conflict in Colombia have involved guerilla groups, paramilitary organizations, and government forces.
35.126413
33.429859
  • Annan Plan

 © UN Photo/Evan Schneider

Secretary-General Kofi Annan (centre), Rauf Denktash (left), Turkish Cypriot Leader, and Tassos Papadopoulos (right), Greek Cypriot Leader.

 

The Annan Plan was an attempt to resolve the longstanding dispute over the island, which has been divided since 1974.
13.794185,
-88.89653
  • Chapultepec Peace Process and Implementation

© Transitions

In downtown San Salvador, thousands of Salvadorans celebrated the signing of the Chapultepec Peace Accords.

Conflict in El Salvador broke out in 1979 when guerrillas took up arms against the Government. Official UN-mediated negotiations started a decade later.
15.179384
39.782334
  • Constitution-making
 © UN Photo/Milton Grant

Eritrean women dance and throw popcorn in celebration of the supervised referendum, held in 1993.

 
The Eritrean constitution-making process started as its liberation struggle against Ethiopia ended.
-17.713371
178.065032
  • Constitution-drafting Process

© Andrea Thalari

Fiji, 2011, Youth Volunteers taking the message of peace to the streets.

 

Longstanding political conflict in Fiji is rooted in its colonial history. In 2012 the military-backed government introduced a new constitution-making process.
42.782305
41.903252
  • UN Negotiations

 © UN Photo/Justyna Melnikiewicz

Patrol officers for United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia stop by various houses to interview locals in the Gagida village in Abkhazia region (2004).

 
Competing territorial claims over Abkhazia and inter-ethnic tensions escalated into war from August 1992 to September 1993.
16.787323
-89.971225
  • Negotiations for a Firm and Lasting Peace

© Cara Snyder

Thousands filled the main plaza of Guatemala City on Dec. 29, 1996 to celebrate the signing of a peace accord.

In December 1996, the Government of Guatemala and leftist guerrilla groups signed a final peace accord that marked an end to a conflict that had lasted for 36 years.
31.833994
35.210913
  • The Geneva Initiative

© Hans Dahle

The Geneva Initiative is an unofficial negotiation between Palestinian officials and Israeli participants who were former officials or opposition party members. The Geneva Accords were never accepted as part of any official negotiation.
31.768319
35.21371
  • Oslo I Peace Process

© Ben Scicluna

Hebron H2 Area

The secret talks were initially at the track two level and prompted by the First Intifada, wider regional instability, and a slow-moving track one process.
-0.023559,
37.906193
  • Kenya National Dialogue and Reconciliation

© Commonwealth Secretariat via Flickr

 

The heavily contested elections of December 2007 were accompanied by widespread political violence that led to over 1,000 deaths and an estimated 600,000 people internally displaced.
6.428055
-9.429499
  • Comprehensive Peace Agreement and Implementation

© UNMIL Photo/Staton Winter 

Liberia commemorates the 2003 Peace Agreement that ended the civil war.

Violent conflict between several warring parties began in Liberia in 1989.
17.570692
-3.996166
  • The National Conference

© UN Photo/Harandane Dicko

 
A National Conference was convened after military repression of a growing democratization movement, and the President's downfall in a military coup.
17.383081
-3.833056
  • Northern Mali Peace Negotiations

© UN Photo/Marco Dormino

Aerial view of the area surrounding Anefis and Kidal, northern Mali.

 
Nomadic Tuareg and Arab groups began an armed rebellion against the Government in northern Mali in 1990.
23.634501
-102.552784
  • Chiapas Peace Process

© Adam Jones

Indigenous Women outside Church San Cristobal de las Casas - Chiapas - Mexico

Longstanding indigenous grievances and economic concerns prompted the EZLN to take up arms against the Government of Mexico. Paramilitary forces also became involved in low-intensity violence for a number of years.
28.394857
84.124008
  • First Constituent Assembly

© Keystone

The Constituent Assembly was provided for in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Maoist Party and the Government of Nepal.
54.787715
-6.492315
  • Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement and Implementation

© Peace and Nonviolence Ireland/INNATE

Inter-communal violence that began in 1969 is largely seen to have ended with the signing of the Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement in 1998.
14.54346
121.130374
  • Government of the Republic of the Philippines–Moro Islamic Liberation Front Negotiations

© Stéphane Gaudin

Members of the MILF stand guard inside the guerrilla base during the central committee hearing in the southern island of Mindanao March 11, 2008.

The MILF became the largest armed group in Mindanao in 1996, and claim to represent Muslim Filipinos in their conflict with the Government.
-6.053602
155.190731
  • Bougainville Peace Negotiations

© Nick Turner/UNDP

The flags of Peit, Papua New Guinea and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville

Papua New Guinean Defense Forces went to Bougainville to combat insurgencies in 1988. A number of armed conflicts persisted on the island for ten years.
-9.64571
160.156194
  • Solomon Islands Townsville Peace Agreement and Constitution-making

© UN Peacebuilding Fund

"Supporting peaceful and inclusive transition in Solomon Islands" project launch, 2016.

The peace and transition process aimed to bring to an end to violence between ethnic groups on the islands.
5.152149
46.199616
  • National Peace Conference

© UN Photo/Milton Grant

May 1993, a building damaged during Somalia’s civil war.

 

The United Nations initiated peace negotiations with the leaders of armed factions in January and March 1993.
4.819413
46.98051
  • National Peace Conference, Djibouti Process

© UN Photo/Tobin Jones

The Djibouti process was conceived as an alternative peace process for Somalia, which might make progress where other attempts had failed.
3.839589
45.299386
  • National Reconciliation Conference (Eldoret/Mbagathi)

© AMISOM Public Information

The 2002–2004 Somalia National Reconciliation Conference in Kenya was initiated to try and reconcile two rival authorities.
9.411743
46.825284
  • Post-independence Violence Negotiations

© Paul Hetherington

The Borama conference was a major peace initiative to end civil war among clans in Somaliland.
-30.559482
22.937506
  • Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA)
  • Multi-Party Negotiation Process
  • Implementation

© UN Photo/Chris Sattlberger

 Pretoria, 1994: Crowds listening to the speech of President Nelson Mandela.

Negotiations for a transition from apartheid to democracy began in 1990.
7.873054
80.771797
  • Peace Process

© Vikalpa/Groundviews/Maatram/CPA

Protest organized by NGO’s, in front of Colombo railway station, July 17, 2014.

Negotiations that began in 2000 aimed to bring an end to armed conflict between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and Sri Lankan state forces.
14.378275
24.904221
  • Doha Peace Negotiations and Implementation

© Albert Gonzalez Farran/UNAMID

Local community in El Srief area (North Darfur), welcome the Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration outreach activity.

40.205242
43.690626
  • Rapprochement Negotiations and Normalization Protocols

© Photolure

Armenia’s Foreign Minister Eduard Nalbandian and  Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu signed the protocols in Switzerland on Oct. 10, 2010.

The tense relationship between Turkey and Armenia worsened after war broke out between Azerbaijan and Armenia. These negotiations attempted to normalize relations.
38.478067
41.397149
  • Peace Process

© Julia Buzaud

The conflict between the Turkish state and the PKK (Kurdistan Workers' Party) has existed since the armed struggle for Kurdish independence began in 1984.
15.552727
48.516388
  • National Dialogue Conference for a New Yemen and Constitution Drafting Commission

© Keystone

After mass protests against President Saleh, he stepped down in 2012, and a National Dialogue Conference was inaugurated in 2013.
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Left Arrow Left Arrow

South Africa [1990] National Dialogue

Right Arrow Right Arrow

Name of process
  • Reconciliation & Transition Conference
Type of process
  • Peace-making
Aim of process
  • Finding a solution to the conflict between the clans in the North
MODALITIES OF INCLUSION
  • Negotiation table
  • Observer status
Actors involved
  • Government of X
  • Various clans and sub clans
  • Women’s groups
Outcome
  • An agreement was signed in January 1990 and implemented
  • Violence has drastically decreased

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Relevant Resources

This map presents basic information on over 30 peace and transition processes that feature in IPTI’s collection of in-depth case studies on inclusive peace processes. It can be filtered according to process type (peace-making, constitution-making, or political reform); actors included (government, military, non-state armed groups, political parties, civil society, women’s groups, business actors, international actors, regional actors); inclusion modality (direct representation at the negotiation table, observer status, consultations, inclusive commissions, high-level problem-solving workshops, public-decision-making, mass action); and outcome (agreement reached and implemented, agreement reached and partially implemented, agreement reached but not implemented, agreement not reached). Choosing multiple options in one filter will result in any process with at least one of those options. This map will continue to develop, so please contact us with feedback.