Inclusive Peace & Transition Initiative
Publication date: 
Case Study 

The Grand Conference on National Reconciliation in Borama was initiated in 1993, with the aim of ending the large-scale violence in the then newly self-declared Republic of Somaliland. The Conference did not manage to cease all hostilities between the clans; however, the process was successful in transitioning Somaliland from a military government to a civilian regime and institutionalizing the political system. In addition, the Conference led to the disarmament and demobilization of large parts of the militias. Women’s groups were, for the first time, formally included in the peace process as observers to the Conference. Despite this, their influence was curtailed by exclusionary selection criteria and procedures as well as patriarchal attitudes.