Inclusive Peace & Transition Initiative

Since 2005, the Graduate Institute's Center on Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding (CCDP)  has been conducting research projects on inclusion and participation in peace and transition processes under the leadership of Dr. Thania Paffenholz. The results of these projects form much of the knowledge base for IPTI's work. 


  • Factors contributing to the quality and sustainability of peace agreements and major political reforms
  • Effective means of broader participation in peace negotiations
  • Inclusiveness beyond peace negotiations
  • Types of civil society actors and their roles in peace and transition processes
  • Role of women’s groups
  • Role of regional and international actors in peace processes
  • Planning and evaluation of peace processes
  • The role of development and humanitarian action in fragile conflict contexts



Broadening Participation

The Broadening Participation Project focused on better understanding how inclusion works in practice and what the impact of broader inclusion is on the quality and sustainability of peace and transition agreements. It compared 40 in-depth case studies of peace and constitution-making negotiations and their implementation from the period 1990-2013.

National Dialogues

The National Dialogues research project (2015–2017) assessed 17 cases of National Dialogues held between 1990 and 2014. The project aimed to contribute to a better understanding of common features of National Dialogues as well as the political context and process factors that have enabled or constrained their outcomes.

Inclusion and State Legitimacy

Open questions remain about how to achieve the goal of more legitimate domestic governance. Which constituencies matter for evaluating a state’s legitimacy? Are more democratic states necessarily more legitimate states? What is the relationship between inclusion and legitimacy? 

Civil Society and Peacebuilding

The Civil Society and Peacebuilding research project investigated whether, how, when, and under what circumstances civil society can fulfill a peace supporting role. It analyzed in thirteen in-depth qualitative country case studies, the performance of civil society with regards to seven peacebuilding functions in four phases of conflict and peace processes.